Lead is actually insoluble in copper-tin alloys, and it is distributed among dendrites as single-phase black inclusions. The lead is unevenly distributed in the ingots, and a small amount of nickel is usually added to improve the distribution and refine the microstructure. Lead reduces the friction coefficient of tin bronze, improves the wear resistance and cutting property, but reduces the mechanical property.
In copper-tin with lead alloys, 3% ~ 5% zinc is often added to improve mechanical properties. The addition of 0.02% ~ 0.1% zirconium or 0.02% ~ 0.1% boron, especially the addition of 0.02% ~ 0.2% rare earth elements, can refine and distribute lead particles evenly to improve the microstructure, casting and mechanical properties of leaded tin bronze.
Tin zinc lead bronze with high wear resistance, free cutting processing, mainly in the form of plate, strip for automotive, aviation and machinery industry, manufacturing bushing and bearing liner, known as automotive bronze.
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