Types of brass
Lead is actually insoluble in brass and distributed at grain boundary as free particle. Leaded brass has α and (α +β) in its structure.α leaded brass can only undergo cold deformation or hot extrusion due to the high harmful effect of lead and its low plasticity at high temperature.(α+β) lead brass has good plasticity at high temperature and can be forged.
Adding tin in brass can obviously improve the heat resistance of alloy, especially improve the ability of resisting seawater corrosion, so tin brass has "naval brass"said. Tin can dissolve into copper - based solid solution and strengthen the solid solution. However, with the increase of tin content, the brittle R phase (CuZnSn compound) will appear in the alloy, which is not conducive to the plastic deformation of the alloy, so the tin content of tin brass generally ranges from 0.5% to 1.5%.
Common tin brass are HSN70-1, HSN62-1, HSN60-1, etc.The former is an alloy with high plasticity and can be processed by cold and hot pressure. The latter two grades of alloys have a （α+β） two-phase structure and often have a small amount of R phase. They are not very plastic at room temperature and can only deform in hot states.
Manganese has a great solubility in solid brass. Adding 1% ~ 4% manganese to brass can improve the strength and corrosion resistance of the alloy, but not reduce its plasticity.
Manganese brass has （α+β） structure, commonly used hmN58-2, cold and hot state pressure processing performance is quite good.
In iron brass, the grains are refined by the precipitation of iron-rich particles as crystal nucleus, and the growth of recrystallized grains is prevented, thus improving the mechanical and technological properties of the alloy. The iron content in iron brass is usually less than 1.5%. The structure of iron brass is (α+β). It has high strength and toughness, plasticity is good at high temperature and can deform in cold state.The commonly used brand is HFE59-1-1.
Nickel and copper can form a continuous solid solution, which significantly expands the phase region. The corrosion resistance of brass in atmosphere and sea water can be improved by adding nickel to brass.Nickel also increases the recrystallization temperature of brass, resulting in the formation of finer grains.
Hni65-5 nickel brass has a single-phase structure and is very plastic at room temperature. It can also deform in the hot state. However, the content of impurity lead must be strictly controlled.
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